Please find below a copy of the Parental Leave policy proposed by the TU-AAUP/Faculty Association. It was passed by the Towson University Senate on March 1, 2010, and adopted and approved by the Council of University System Faculty (CUSF, the advisory body of the University System of Maryland) this fall; CUSFsubmitted it to the Board of Regents at their Friday, December 3rd meeting, as a proposal for the University System of Maryland.
For the TU-AAUP/Faculty Association, this represents the first step in a two-step process that will be continued in Fall 2010, as we develop a broader Family Care Policy. FLIC (the TU-AAUP ad hoc Family Leave Issues Committee) is holding a workshop on Friday, January 28th, to work on this broader policy. For more information on the Family Care Policy, or to become involved in this process, please contact Prof. Chris D'Addario, FLIC chair, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Policy Proposal: Parental Leave for Faculty of Towson University
The national American Association of University Professors (AAUP) issued its Statement of Principles on Family Responsibilities and Academic Work in 2001, providing recommendations for leaves of absence related to childbirth, adoption, and the care of dependent family members. The intent of the statement is to permit male and female academic professionals to pursue challenging careers while still participating fully in family life. It argues that “the goal of every institution should be to create an academic community in which all members are treated equitably, families are supported, and family-care concerns are regarded as legitimate and important.”
The policies fall into two categories: (1) general policies addressing family responsibilities, including family-care leaves and institutional support for child and elder care; and (2) more specific policies, such as stopping the tenure clock, that specifically relate to pretenure faculty members who are primary or coequal caregivers for newborn or newly adopted children, responding to the special and age-related difficulty of becoming a parent during the pretenure years.
The United States remains shockingly behind most other countries in the world in terms of work-life balance policies. According to the Sloan Work and Family Research Network, “Out of 173 countries studied, 169 countries offer guaranteed leave with income to women in connection with childbirth; 98 of these countries offer 14 or more weeks paid leave. Although in a number of countries many women work in the informal sector, where these government guarantees do not always apply, the fact remains that the U.S. guarantees no paid leave for mothers in any segment of the work force, leaving it in the company of only 3 other nations: Liberia, Papua New Guinea, and Swaziland” (Source: Heymann, Earle, & Hayes, 2007. The work, family, and equity index: How does the United States measure up?). Please see Section II of this document for related statistics.
Recognizing the importance of improving the work-life balance record in the United States, the federal government has been deliberating in the 111th Congress (2009-2010) the following work-family policies:
HR 626 was passed by the House on June 4, 2009 by a 258-154 vote.
HR 626 was passed by the House on June 4, 2009 by a 258-154 vote.
2339): Provides up to $1.5 billion for grants to states to develop and implement
paid family and medical leave programs. States would be eligible to receive grants for programs that offer a minimum of six weeks of paid leave to care for a newborn or newly adopted child. States with programs that cover additional reasons to take leave under the FMLA would receive larger grants. (Referred to House Committee on Education and Labor and the subcommittee on Workforce Protections; currently under deliberation.)
Institutions of higher education should lead the way in helping the U.S. to become competitive with other countries; otherwise we risk losing potential leaders of tomorrow, those we work so hard to educate, to more supportive work opportunities in other countries. For this reason, the national AAUP 2001 statement encourages both public and private educational institutions to go beyond the minimum coverage prescribed by the FMLA and provide also some form of paid family-care leave. Colleges and Universities present both particular opportunities and challenges in this regard. As the AAUP argues, “Because of the unique characteristics of academic life, particularly the flexibility of schedules, tremendous potential exists for achieving a healthy work-family integration. At the same time, academic culture poses a special challenge. The lack of a clear boundary in academic lives between work and family has, at least historically, meant that work has been all pervasive, often to the detriment of family.” This may be true for male or female faculty members. In addition, of course, the situation of teaching faculty is unique, in that a typical semester-long course lasts for 14 weeks. This means that if a faculty member is not given semester leave, the alternative is offering a course to students that is disrupted, lacks continuity, and is partially taught by one or more substitutes who are likely not specialists in the discipline. Moreover, without a semester leave, new faculty parents must burden faculty colleagues (who are already often overworked) with covering the weeks of the course during which the faculty member is not able to teach.
As the AAUP policy also recognizes, families are varied and evolving. Any family leave policy must take into account “the existence of blended families created by divorce and remarriage, and policies that include domestic partners, adopted and foster children, and other household members who live in a family group. Administrators and faculty members should be alert to the many forms that discrimination may take against those with a variety of family responsibilities throughout their careers.”
For the health of the profession, as well as our society, we must foster a successful balance between work and life. Far from a utopian ideal, support of work-life balance in the workplace has been shown to increase the health, the happiness, and hence the productivity of employees by creating a more vibrant, supportive, and satisfied work environment. Towson University should therefore join other institutions of higher education in developing policies to support the growing number of “scholar-teacher-parents” in colleges and universities across the nation.
As one may see in the sample policies provided in this document (Section V), many institutions of higher education have responded to the need for faculty to take care of newborn or newly adopted children by creating modified duty policies to allow faculty to obtain relief from some teaching or service obligations while remaining in active-service status. Active-service status allows faculty members to continue research or other obligations and receive full pay. For example, the University of California system’s "active service-modified duties" policy allows faculty partial or full relief from teaching for one quarter (or semester) if the faculty member has "substantial responsibility" for care of a newborn or newly adopted child under the age of five. This period of modified duties is not considered a leave, and the faculty member receives full pay. Other universities allow faculty to reduce semester- or year-long teaching loads for child-care purposes with proportional reductions in pay. Please see the sample policies provided in Section V of this document for more examples of both paid leave and modified duties possibilities.
Family Friendly Policies in Higher Education:
Percentage of institutions offering these formal, institution-wide policies in 2007
Paid Maternity 78%
Stopping the Tenure Clock after the Birth/Adoption of a Child 65%
Phased retirement 47%
Extra unpaid leave for faculty to care for family members* 44%
Paid time off for faculty fathers 36%
Paid time off after maternity leave for faculty mothers 29%
Reducing workloads of faculty new parents (without pay decrease) 21%
Part-time appointments to care for family members 15%
*Beyond the 12-weeks unpaid leave mandated by FMLA
Source: U of Michigan Center for the Education of Women
Women and the Academic Profession:
While we feel strongly that family-friendly policies and work-life balance are important for both male and female faculty members, we also recognize that some family concerns reflect uniquely upon the status of women in the profession.
The average age for receipt of a Ph.D. is 33, placing the tenure year at age 40. Women are more likely to receive the Ph.D. at a slightly older median age (34.1 years as compared to 32.8 years for men) (NORC Survey of Earned Doctorates). Thus the period of most intensive work to establish an academic career coincides with prime childrearing years. Because they are more likely to carry the burden of childrearing duties, women are often forced to make a choice between an all-consuming professional career or having children—a choice men are not generally forced to make. This is a significant source of inequities in faculty status, promotion, tenure, and salary:
1. We propose that any full-time faculty member who is the primary caregiver for a new child (either through birth, adoption, or fostering for adoption) should have the right to Paid Primary Caregiver Leave. We feel strongly that Primary Caregiver Leave must not be “paid for” by utilizing sick days. Using sick days for maternity/parental leave reinforces the idea that childbearing through pregnancy or adoption is a sickness, conveying the message that a pregnant woman is "incapacitated by illness.” If parents are to be accepted as full members of the academic community, reproductive life processes such as pregnancy, childbirth, or adoption must be perceived as normal life events for any woman or man. Families (of all sorts) are essential to the endurance and health of our society and thus officially incorporated into our working lives.
Paid Primary Caregiver Leave: The primary caregiver parent shall be entitled to up to one semester of paid leave for the birth, adoption, or fostering for adoption of a child. This shall be distinct from sick, disability, or vacation leave. Birth or adoption is not an illness or disability; it is a life process. Paid primary caregiver leave is the most dependable way to ensure that students’ educational experience will not be disrupted or diminished by faculty who become new parents, by avoiding the mid-semester disruption of classes and consequent lack of continuity that may result in the case of substitution or sudden absence. It also prevents an extra burden of work from being placed on colleagues, who must otherwise fill in for new parents during weeks-long absences, or on department chairs or deans, who might otherwise have to juggle schedules, substitutes, or other complicated arrangements. Paid Primary Caregiver Leave shall not have a negative effect upon benefits. Paid Primary Caregiver Leave shall be awarded without penalty to any eligible faculty member. Faculty members taking Paid Primary Caregiver Leave may or may not choose to stop the tenure clock for one year. Faculty members may stop the tenure clock for new child care no more than twice before tenure.
2. If a faculty member opts not to accept the traditional Paid Primary Caregiver Leave, she or he shall be offered one of the following two options instead:
3. In addition to the above options, full-time faculty who become new parents by birth, adoption, or fostering for adoption should have the right, without penalty, to the following initiatives to supplement and aid in transition back to the workplace:
a. A faculty member may, without penalty, bank or defer teaching one class until a future semester, provided sufficient notice is given to the department chair. This banking or deferral is allowed whether the leave takes place in the Spring (may be deferred to Summer or Fall), or in the Fall (may be deferred to Winter or Spring).
b. Qualified faculty may elect to teach an upper level (or, as available, a graduate class) rather than a lower level class.
c. Faculty have the option of offering hybrid or online courses.
d. With any of the above options, tenure track faculty without tenure have the option of extending the tenure clock, without penalty. In the event that tenure is denied to the employee, she or he will be allowed another full year of employment (terminal year) as would be allowed with any other tenure case.
e. Information regarding parental leave and nursing options shall be made clear and readily available to all faculty. Such information shall be included in new faculty orientation packets as well as clearly stated in the Faculty Handbook.
4. In order to ensure that faculty are given these rights without penalty, we further recommend that the Administration adopt the following measures to support work-family balance at Towson. Administrators can and should use data to measure and guide an institution's progress on work-family objectives.
IV. Narrative Accounts of Birth, Adoption, and “Deals” made at Towson University
Worked on Master’s program, helped with Writing Project, did not teach, did not take sick leave.
Did not take any leave for 1st pregnancy, since she was new and had no sick leave to use.
Second pregnancy (under a different departmental chair): taught one class (load had already been reduced by that time to 2-2 for reasons unrelated to family care leave); did not take sick leave.
1st pregnancy-the baby was born in May 19--, she did not take leave.
2nd pregnancy-twins were born in July, 19--, she did not take leave. In October, while she was working, although advised by a doctor to go on medical leave, she was warned of upcoming tenure problems in areas of service, teaching, and scholarship. Ultimately, she was granted tenure.
3rd pregnancy-the baby was born in January, 20-- (after the faculty member had received tenure). Although she had agreed with the department that she would be relieved of all teaching obligations, and only perform scholarship and service obligations, she was accused by the department of failing to meet these. The department backed off from this charge after the faculty member hired a lawyer and requested her personal file.
Taught one upper level class, took sick leave, completed departmental publicity project.
Taught one grad class, took sick leave, directed a program, served as President of AAUP (in exchange for a course release).
Taught eight credits of a nine credit load, relieved of service and research obligations. Did not take sick leave. Was supposed to teach an extra credit in the spring, but the department did not need this in the end. Tenure clock extended for one year. Because of past TU policy, if she is denied tenure, she is not eligible for a terminal year.
This faculty member is planning for the birth of a child in Spring 2010 semester, after being in the university (tenure track position) 1.5 years. At Towson, she accessed information through self-exploration, with help from HR, her dept and others who took leave recently. Since she had not accrued much personal sick leave in less than 2 years at TU, she found a creative way to “count” credits for her Spring 2010 teaching load, having credits “banked” from previous semesters when she taught an overload. She is teaching one course in the Spring 2010 semester, but it is a hybrid course, mostly online. She was able to utilize a combination of furlough days, personal sick leave, and collegially-supported sick days to make up the remaining time to allow for the teaching reduction. She is expected to perform all scholarship and service activities at normal rate for Spring 2010 (since she has opted not to stop her tenure clock). Compared to her previous appointment at another university, where she was given a full semester’s leave for childbirth, creating the plan at Towson was difficult, trying to formulate a plan on her own time and during her last trimester of pregnancy.
Adopted a child, took 6 weeks sick leave, chair took over 2 classes, adjunct took over 1 class, but returned to hostile atmosphere in the department. Added one year to tenure clock, in exchange for giving up the possibility of a terminal year (in the event tenure is denied).
Became pregnant and gave birth during her first year at Towson. Had the child in the middle of the spring semester, took two days leave, and went back to the classroom two weeks after delivery. Her main source of information was Towson HR, which informed her she had no accrued (sick) leave time. She did not receive any help, any suggestions or advice from anyone else. She did not feel her peers supported her reintegration to the faculty. “It was as nothing ever happened”. Structural support-wise, her tenure report complained that she did not attend concerts from colleagues or students –despite the fact that she continued to publish and present at conferences, commuted one hour to Towson and could not commit to be here at night because she was breastfeeding. No infant childcare options were offered.
Employed by Towson two years prior to semester in which she gave birth. In CLA, she was given the option of taking a course reduction in the semester she gave birth. She was given the option of taking the semester off, according to FMLA guidelines, without pay. At Towson, she was allowed to teach a 7-week course and an evening course to fit her schedule with the newborn. She made her decision financially, choosing the CLA option of taking a course reduction and tried to schedule her two courses accordingly. She felt supported in her decision and doesn’t think her leave affected the attitudes of the department or the college. She felt supported in whatever decision she took, including if she should decide to stop the tenure clock. Towson offered no infant child care options.
Took maternity leave in Spring 2008 at Towson for the birth of a child; had been 4.5 years at Towson before the leave. She learned from HR that she could take 6 weeks FMLA and use 6 weeks of her sick leave, but no more than that, even though there were at least 18 weeks of sick leave in her account. There was not an option to take unpaid leave for the remainder of the semester to stay at home with her child. So, her decision was financially determined, since she had been barely meeting her bills on her TU salary to begin with. In terms of support from the dept/colleagues/dean, it was implied she would return after six weeks at full capacity, towards the end of the semester. No infant options were offered. Her nursing needs were also not met properly. She shares an office and tried to be discreet while pumping.
She took leave in Fall semester for the birth of a child. She had been at Towson 1.5 years, full-time, tenure-track before that. She taught an overload in the fall semester prior to the birth of her child (11 instead of 9 credits). She took sick leave and unpaid leave (FMLA) to cover the 6 weeks following the birth (although much of this time was over the winter break). She taught a reduced load in the spring semester (6 instead of 9 credits). This was the only option she was provided with. While the overload in the fall and reduced load in the spring was better than no alternative, it was not without issue. It was challenging/exhausting to teach an overload during the last trimester of pregnancy. It was frustrating to be forced by HR into using her sick leave during the winter break even though the chair did not believe this was necessary since it was non-instructional time. It was also frustrating to have very little sick leave built up since being a newly hired faculty member. Even with the reduced teaching load, it was difficult to make it through the spring semester juggling work and family responsibilities. Colleagues offered to cover classes at the end of the fall semester, understood her inability to attend committee meetings; modifying her role in a grant as well. She is worried about the effects of her decision for her tenure. Being a co-PI on a grant, she felt that she could not stop her tenure clock (the grant would not count towards tenure if she stopped the clock). When she returned in the spring semester, her classes were scheduled in the early afternoon to accommodate her needs as a new mother. No childcare options were provided. In terms of nursing needs, her office is a private room allowed her to pump. However, both of her classes were 2 hours 40 minutes in duration making it difficult to pump as frequently as she needed to. She purchased her own refrigerator to store the milk in her office.
V. Parental Leave Policies at Other Institutions, both Peer and non-Peer
San Diego State University (aspirational peer): Paid Maternity/Paternity/Adoption Leave: 30 days of paid leave, not counted as sick days. Commences within a one hundred and thirty-five (135) day period, which begins sixty (60) days prior to the anticipated arrival date of the new child, and ends seventy-five (75) days after the arrival of a new child due to birth, adoption or foster care. Charged only for workdays in such period of time and days are taken consecutively.
University of Akron (aspirational peer): Paid Maternity Leave: 20 paid working days of leave, not taken from sick days (and in addition to availability). FMLA mandated unpaid leave). Paternity Leave: Upon a pregnant spouse’s delivery is granted, within 180 days of the delivery, twenty (20) working days of paid Paternity Leave which will not be taken from sick days, but counted as part of FMLA leave.
University of Central Florida (aspirational peer): Only FMLA leave.
Sacramento State University (performance peer, part of CSU system): The Maternity/Paternity/Adoption/Parental leave is a paid leave of up to 30 days, associated with the birth of an employee's own child or the placement of a child with the employee in connection with adoption or foster care. This type of absence is not charged against the employee's leave credits.
UNC, Charlotte (performance peer): “It is the policy of The University of North Carolina at Charlotte to support leaves of absence from University duties for members of the faculty when such leaves will assist them in meeting their personal and family-related needs, or will contribute to their professional growth and development, or will permit their involvement in activities which will benefit them or the University.” A faculty member shall be granted up to twelve weeks or one academic semester of leave with pay (during a twelve-month period determined by counting back twelve months from the date the leave begins) for any one or more of the following reasons: Because of the birth of a child of the faculty member and to exercise primary responsibility for the care of an infant for the period immediately following the birth; To exercise primary responsibility for care of a child under age five placed with the faculty member for adoption or foster care, provided the leave is taken immediately following the placement; To exercise primary responsibility for the care of the faculty member's child, spouse, or parent when that child, spouse or parent has a serious health condition; Because the faculty member has a serious health condition that renders him/her unable to perform the essential functions of his/her position.
East Carolina State University (performance peer): 12 weeks paid leave for maternity, paternity, and adoption. This is concurrent with, not in addition to, FMLA leave. This policy began as a University Senate Resolution in 2005 and was approved by all administrative levels, ending with the Board of Trustees, by the end of 2005.
Ball State University (performance peer): Maternity Leave is counted as sick leave; paid leave is thus only given in the case of an inability to work. Otherwise only FMLA unpaid leave applies.
James Madison University (performance peer): 12 weeks of paid or unpaid leave, as mandated by FMLA; paid leave would utilize sick days.
U of Massachusetts, Boston (performance peer): 12 weeks of paid or unpaid leave, as mandated by FMLA; paid leave would utilize sick days.
Western Kentucky University (performance peer): 12 weeks of paid or unpaid leave, as mandated by FMLA. Informal arrangements made between faculty member and department chair or dean. Faculty may possibly be able to negotiate 6 weeks to one semester off with full salary and benefits. (The informal arrangements and possible paid leave are written into the policy as such).
University of Northern Iowa (performance peer): 12 weeks of paid or unpaid leave, as mandated by FMLA; paid leave would utilize sick days.
Loyola University, Maryland: Tenured and tenure-track faculty, without regard to length of service, may apply for one semester of paid parental leave due to the birth or adoption of a child, or the assignment of a foster child. Such leave may only be taken during the first year of birth, adoption, or assignment. Full-time affiliate and four-fifths-time faculty members with at least one year of service with the University may apply for one semester of paid parental leave due to the birth or adoption of a child, or the assignment of a foster child. Such leave may only be taken during the first year of birth, adoption, or assignment. The faculty member on parental leave will have no teaching duties during the semester in which he or she is on leave. In addition, the faculty member is not required to participate in the life of the University or the department during the first 12 weeks of parental leave. However, depending on departmental needs as determined by the department chair and dean, the faculty member may be expected to participate in the life of the department, the University, and professionally at the end of the 12 weeks. If all or part of a faculty member’s parental leave qualifies as FMLA leave, time taken as parental leave will run concurrently with any FMLA leave. Salary and University paid benefits will continue for the duration of the leave up to a maximum of one semester.
California University System: University of California Family Friendly Policies for Faculty and Other Academic Appointees: http://www.ucop.edu/acadadv/family/policies-print.html
Maternity Leave: Six (6) weeks paid leave as certified by medical practitioner.
Active Service – Modified Duties: Partial or full relief from teaching due to
responsibility for the care of an infant or young child. In the quarter or semester of
childbearing leave, full relief from scheduled teaching duties is granted.
Cornell University: Cornell Academic Parental Leave: Full salary up to one semester with partial relief from teaching duties (if the academic is the primary care giving parent) as agreed to with the Dean, Department Chair, or other Academic Manager.
"Cornell University is committed to policies, practices, and programs supportive of the members of its diverse community as they traverse the interlocking worlds of work and family. The University encourages, at all levels, an environment which is supportive of and sensitive to the needs and mutual dependence of the workplace and working families."
University of Virginia: Leave Policy and Modified Duties: A modified service leave of up to one
semester for teaching faculty will be granted on request to the primary caretaker of
one's child, spouse, or other disabled or elderly adult. During this period, salary will be prorated to amount worked, with the restriction that the modified service must involve no less than 50% commitment. Allowable fringe benefits will continue with the retirement benefits being prorated as permitted by the individual faculty member's retirement plan to the percentage of effort worked.
Denison University: Maternity Leave: Full salary up to six months with physician certification. Teaching faculty may take up to 12 weeks of unpaid family leave in a 12- month period (see Section VIII.C.5, "Family and Medical Leave Act").
Modified Duties: A modified service leave for all or part of semester to include
reduction of teaching load and adjustment of class meeting schedules.
This leave plan may include a program of paid work-related activities for the weeks in a
given semester that precede or follow the family or medical leave.
Boston University: Maternity Leave: Full salary is paid for a period of time where the faculty member is unable to perform some or all of her professional duties.
The University will provide coverage for on-campus responsibilities such as teaching and
academic advising of students at the faculty member’s request, for a period of up to three
months. A faculty member who opts to receive paid maternity leave is also subject to the
terms and conditions of eligibility for Faculty Temporary Disability. Disability means inability of the faculty member, as a result of sickness or injury, including medical complications arising from pregnancy, to perform the regular duties of her employment with the University at her regular salary. If the faculty member has less than 3 years of service when the disability begins, the maximum period of full salary is three months. A faculty member with 3 or more years of service when the disability begins is entitled to a maximum period of full salary for six months.
UC Berkeley developed a whole new set of policies in 2006, funded by a Sloan grant. Among the offerings now is their policy of Active Service, Modified Duties: Eligibility for a period of active service-modified duties shall normally extend from 3 months
prior to 12 months following the birth or placement. An academic appointee who is a birth mother and who has a full-time appointment for at least one full academic year (three quarters or two semesters) is eligible for a total period of childbearing leave plus active service-modified duties of two quarters (or two semesters) to enable her to recover fully from the effects of pregnancy and childbirth and to prepare for and/or care for the newborn child. If she gives birth during the summer or an off-duty term, she is eligible for a total period of active service-modified duties of two quarters (or two semesters).1
All other academic appointees are eligible for a total period of childbearing
leave plus active service-modified duties of one quarter (or one semester).1
MIT: The School of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology provides that the school "will normally offer a one-semester release from teaching and administrative activities at full pay to faculty members who act as the primary caretaker at home for a new child."
University of Michigan: Provides for "modified duties for childbearing," which enable a faculty member to recover fully from the effects of pregnancy and childbirth by allowing a pregnant faculty member, on request to her dean, [to] be granted a period of modified duties without a reduction in salary. At a minimum, modified duties means relief from direct teaching responsibilities for the academic term that includes the actual sick leave time the faculty member expects to take in connection with the birth. This policy is available to non-tenured as well as tenured faculty, but is available only in conjunction with pregnancy or childbirth. The tenure clock is not stopped during the period of modified duties unless the faculty member also has an appointment of less than 80 percent during the time she is on modified duties.
Wayne State University: The Wayne State University AAUP-AFT collective bargaining agreement (1999b–2002) provides for modified duty assignments at full or partial pay, depending on whether a full or reduced teaching load is arranged.
Rutgers University: No separate policy for faculty. Offers FMLA Leave policy, supplemented by New Jersey Family Leave Insurance, which: “replaces lost income when an employee is on an unpaid leave of absence for the care of others under certain circumstances. Eligible employees will receive two-thirds of their wages to a maximum of $546 per week for up to six weeks over a 12-month period to: bond with a child during the first 12 months after the child’s birth, or bond with an adopted child within the first 12 months of placement; or care for a family member (defined as a child, spouse, domestic partner, civil union partner, or parent) with a serious health condition.
Johns Hopkins University: Maternity Leave for a faculty member giving birth will be paid for the first eight weeks. Additional leave, up to a total of one year, will be considered parental leave and will be unpaid. (For pregnancy complications, see MLOA.) In addition, FMLA supplements this. Full-time faculty with at least 12 months of service may be granted full leave without pay for up to one year, or part-time leave for up to three years.
TU, UMCP, and Univ. of Baltimore (following UMS policy): FMLA leave (12 weeks unpaid); accrued sick days may pay for some of this. UMCP has just also passed a temporary part-time status policy for tenure/tenure-track faculty for the purposes of childcare).
VII. Relevant Links
Statement of Principles on Family Responsibilities and Academic Work (2001):
Sloan Work and Family Research Network:
Information on Maternity, Paternity, and Family Leave (comparative statistics):
Parental Leave, Wikipedia (international statistics, quick reference graph):
Chronicle of Higher Education, “Giving Birth to a Good Policy”:
National Partnership for Women and Families: Paid Family and Medical Leave:
National Partnership Policy suggestions for Advocates and Legislators:
Academic Work-Life, a clearinghouse of articles and studies on academic work-life issues:
Family Friendly Policies in Higher Education (a university of Michigan study, funded by the Sloan Foundation, 2005):
Also, the Nov.-Dec. 2004 issue of Academe was devoted to this issue. This issue includes the above-cited article, “Developing and Implementing Work-Family Policies for Faculty,” by two of the authors of the U of Michigan, Sloan-funded study: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/academe/2004/ND/
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