Dr. Kent Barnes Associate Professor of Geography
and Environmental Planning
Liberal Arts 2332
Dr. Barnes’ research and teaching interests are human responses and adjustments to environmental hazards, environmental assessment and impact analysis, land-use, and water resources issues and management. In addition to the Geography Department, he is affiliated with the Center for Geographic Information Sciences within the College of Liberal Arts and the Environmental Science and Studies program within the College of Science and Mathematics.
Dr. Beauchamp’s research program goals are to test and refine ecological models of succession, identify environmental thresholds involved in plant community change, and elucidate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant community dynamics. A large part of my research program also involves practical applications related to management, conservation and restoration of plant communities.
Dr. Harald Beck
Assistant Professor of Biological Sciences
Smith Hall 249
Dr. Beck’s current research focuses on understanding how disturbances, either natural or anthropogenic affect the population dynamics and species richness of mammals and plants in the Amazon. In particular, he is interested in the dramatic impact of peccaries (a pig-like creature) on forest ecology. Because of habitat destruction and hunting (anthropogenic disturbances), the species has been driven to local extinction and a new generation of trees is maturing without the massive seed predation and dispersal (mammal-plant interactions), soil disturbance, or physical damage wrought by the peccaries. To test some of these hypotheses, he has set up several long-term experiments in Cocha Cashu and Los Amigos, two sites within the Peruvian Amazon. In addition, in collaboration with colleagues from the IUCN Tapir Specialists Group, he is currently testing the impact of tapir disturbances on the seedling and sapling communities using hundreds of exclosures across five Neotropical countries and in Malaysia. Dr. Beck has also been studying the effects of peccaries as ecosystem engineers - a species that physically modifies and creates new habitats. The results of his research are crucial for understanding the role of mammals within their ecosystem, and help us to develop new conservation and management strategies.
Dr. Mark Bulmer
Assistant Professor of Biological Sciences
Research in Dr. Bulmer's lab focuses on the immune defenses of social insects, specifically termites and their fungal pathogens. Termites appear to have exploited elements of the conserved innate immune system for socially mediated protection. Immune proteins that are usually associated with the hemolymph (insect blood) in other insects are spread among termite colony members by mutual grooming and incorporated into nest building materials. We are investigating the evolution and mechanism of these secreted proteins as well as the fungal pathogens that they appear to target.
Dr. Ryan Casey Associate Professor of Chemistry
Interim Director - Environmental Science & Studies
Smith Hall 514C
Dr. Casey's research involves quantifying biogeochemical processes at the interface between terrestrial and aquatic systems. Currently he is focusing on quantifying major and trace element fluxes from urban impervious surfaces (e.g. roads, parking lots) into storm water retention ponds. He and his team are investigating the role of road salt and stormwater ponds in the long term salinization of surface waters in this region. Other studies have shown that Cl- levels are increasing in area streams draining impervious surfaces and have predicted that if this increase continues, sensitive organisms may be eliminated from these waters due to salt stress. They hypothesize that stormwater ponds introduce significant quantities of road salt into the subsurface where it can slowly migrate to surface waters throughout the course of the year. They are also evaluating changes in cation distribution that occur during salinization and the potential impacts those changes have on trace metal bioavailability and biota in stormwater ponds. Recently, they have also investigated the relative importance of sediment and biofilm for uptake of trace elements into larval amphibians. These organisms graze on biofilms and co-ingest sediments, both of which may be contaminated in stormwater ponds and other sites. This work addresses the question of whether ingested biofilm is as important as ingested sediment in trace element accumulation. Results to date indicate the biofilm is an important consideration for the accumulation of As and Se, while sediment is the dominant source for Cr and Ni.
Dr. Fath's research goals are to understand better System Sustainability, which he addresses using three different approaches: network analysis, integrated environmental assessment, and information theory. Sustainability is a critically important area that encompasses a broad range of research interests including ecosystem services, biodiversity, natural resources, human cultures, and specific environments. He uses network analysis to investigate thermodynamic sustainability indicators. These indicators are often referred to as ecological goal functions, which are used to describe the direction of development that ecosystem properties such as energy or exergy flow, biomass production, or respiration undergo during succession. These metrics help understand the overall behavior and health of that system and its response due to perturbations. He is also interested in how ecosystems interact with human systems and vice versa. Integrated environmental assessment is an interdisciplinary and social process linking knowledge and action in public policy aimed at identifying and analyzing interactions of natural and human processes which determine both the current and future states of environmental quality.
Dr. Susan E. Gresens
Associate Professor of Biological Sciences
Smith Hall 223
Dr. Gresens' area of specialization is freshwater ecology, with a focus on stream ecosystems. Most of her research involves midges (Diptera: Chironomidae), a family of aquatic insects with high species diversity and an amazing range of ecological specialization. In addition, she has a long-standing interest in algal-grazer interactions. She is currently using collections of chironomid pupal exuviae (cast pupal exoskeletons) to study the response of species diversity to urbanization in 24 streams in the Baltimore area. Using a similar approach, she is also collaborating with Dr. Leonard C. Ferrington, Jr., and the Chironomidae Research Group at the University of Minnesota on a survey of chironomid species diversity along Minnehaha Creek, an urban stream in the Minneapolis metropolitan area. Periphyton (i.e., attached algae) are an important component of the base of stream food webs; periphyton provide both food and habitat for many chironmids and other aquatic invertebrates. Other areas of her research include experimental studies of the effects of silt/clay sediments on nutrient limitation of periphyton, and an analysis of the dynamics of periphyton biomass in urban streams in relation to nutrients and hydrologic variability.
Dr. Haines' research focuses on aspects of environmental education and the use of the environment as an integrated context for learning across all major academic disciplines. She is interested in professional development for both preservice and inservice teachers in the area of environmental education, and in providing teachers with the necessary content and pedagogical methods to effectively teach scientific concepts to their students. A major focus of her work also centers on developing outdoor classrooms on school grounds that can be used to effectively teach a variety of subject areas in a more student-centered, inquiry based manner
Coevolution of Acropyga ants and mealybugs: Acropyga ants display a fascinating behavior termed trophophoresy. Trophophoresy is the behavior of a queen ant taking with her on her mating flight a mealybug from her birth nest (LaPolla, 2002). This mealybug serves as a "seed" individual through which a new colony of mealybugs will be created. The ants feed on the sugary substances produced by the mealybugs. It is believed the ants and mealybugs are mutually dependent on one another for survival. Acropyga ants are, in a sense, the dairy farmers of the ant world.
We know virtually nothing about the symbiosis between Acropyga ants and their mealybug “cattle.” Investigating the biological aspects of this complex symbiosis has become a major component of Dr. LaPolla's research program. In collaboration with Drs. Ted Schultz & Sean Brady (National Museum of Natural History) and Dr. Joseph Bischoff (National Institutes of Health-GenBank), several important studies are planned over the next several years.
Biodiversity Studies: Dr. LaPolla has employed the replicable "ALL" (Ants of the Leaf Litter) protocol to examine patterns of ant diversity across South America. In collaboration with Dr. Ted Schultz (NMNH) and doctoral student Jeffery Sosa-Calvo (U Maryland-College Park), his research project will continue gathering and examining leaf litter ant data from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil and Peru. Over the next three years, the team will complete ongoing studies comparing the Guiana Shield fauna to the rest of South America to extrapolate patterns of endemism and identify areas of conservation concern. Dr. LaPolla is also Lead Scientist for Conservation International’s Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring in Suriname. This project involves periodic ant sampling at Raleighvallen in the Central Suriname Nature Reserve.
Revisionary Systematics: Dr. LaPolla is completing a world revision of the ant genus Paratrechina, a large genus of over 140 species, and a group that contains many invasive species of agricultural and economic importance. With no taxonomic monograph available, most Paratrechina species are currently impossible to identify. Defining the species will help efforts at using biological control methods to control invasive species. The genus has never been revised and there are undoubtedly many new species awaiting discovery.
He is also beginning a world revision of the genus Discothyrea with doctoral student Jeffery Sosa-Calvo (U Maryland-College Park). These enigmatic ants are found worldwide in subtropical and tropical localities. They are thought to be specialist predators on arthropod eggs.
Dr. Joel Moore
Assistant Professor of Physics, Astronomy and Geosciences
Dr. Moore’s research focuses on using geochemical tools to understand earth surface and atmospheric processes in natural and anthropogenically-impacted systems. Past and current projects include: 1) Mineral weathering and how it is affected by, or affects by a) Soil age, b) Ecosystem development, and/or c) Tectonic uplift and erosion; 2) Anthropogenic release, transportation, and fate of pollutants, particularly metals; and 3) Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and carbon isotopes to measure cycling in urban areas. He is also in the initial stages of a couple of projects in built and engineered systems including assessing the effects of subsurface sequestered CO2 leaking into drinking water aquifers and the relationship between concrete chemistry and microbial communities.
Dr. Clare Muhoro Associate Professor of Chemistry
Smith Hall 514G
Dr. Muhoro's research involves "Novel Syntheses and Applications of Phosphorus- and Boron-Containing Bifunctional Ligands". She and her team utilize highly efficient homogeneous catalysis to synthesize phosphanyl(organyl)borane compounds, and apply these molecules as ligands in the synthesis of transition metal complexes. These unique ligands can be applied as functional ligands e.g., as nucleophile binding agents, Lewis acid cocatalysts in polymerizations reactions or as monomers in the synthesis of uncommon Lewis Acid-Base polymers.
Undergraduate researchers conduct this work exclusively under inert-atmosphere on a Schlenk line and in a glove-box. The students characterize the compounds by proton, carbon, boron and phosphorus NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS, and IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies. Another area of Dr. Muhoro's research involves "Mechanisms of Decomposition of Organic Pesticides in Aqueous Environments."
The aquatic fate of organic pesticides depends on numerous parameters that are unique to a given aquatic system such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen content, metal ion content, and salinity. Her group is interested in investigating the pathways of decomposition of organic pesticides under specific conditions.
The research involves travel to study sites, located in tropical regions, to characterize the aquatic environments in which organic pesticides are found. The field work is followed by laboratory studies involving kinetic studies on pesticide degradation. Undergraduate students measure reaction rates using proton NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies.
Dr. Nelson’s research broadly focuses on trying to understand how the environment controls life processes and how living organisms have evolved to respond to environmental pressures in two systems: 1) The main focus of the research is the nutritional physiological ecology of Loricariid catfish. Evidence suggests that loricariid catfishes of the genus Panaque are capable of utilizing wood in their diet. I am studying the ability of Panaque to degrade carbon polymers like cellulose and hemi-cellulose. I am also investigating the enzymes produced by the microflora of Panaque guts. In collaboration with Dr. Don Stewart of the SUNY College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry and Bill Patterson of Syracuse University, I am trying to take this research to South America so that we may better understand the unique biology of Panaque in situ. 2) I am also collaborating with colleagues in Canada to investigate factors that contribute to locomotor performance in Atlantic cod. I have already shown that exercise physiology in these fish varies on an individual and population level and that environment (salinity and temperature) are important limiting factors. We are currently trying to better understand the inter-relationships of various locomotor types in cod, their relationship to predatory ability, and how other physiological factors like nutritional state influence locomotor capacity and physiology. 3) I am in the planning stages of starting a research project on the locomotor capacity of local fishes. This may take the form of collaboration with Dr. Joel Snodgrass of this department studying the effects of human developments on local stream fish populations.
Dr. David Ownby
Associate Professor of Chemistry
Smith Hall 514D
A general theme present in Dr. Ownby's research is the goal of developing models and utilizing novel statistical approaches to accurately predict the effects and fate of metals, both singularly and in combination in both aquatic and terrestrial systems. His research addresses issues of how the chemistry of a system affects the bioavailability of metals and the consequential affect of the metal on the organism. Other projects that have been a part of his research include fate and distribution of mercury in the environment, bioaccumulation of explosives, species sensitivity distributions, and adaptation of organisms to contaminated sites.
Dr. Roberge's research focuses on the interaction between human society and its physical environment. He uses methods from the fields of Geomorphology, Geographic Information Science, and Remote Sensing to study our impact on urban streams and watersheds. Some of his past projects have investigated how channel structures have affected the Salt River in Phoenix, Ariz. He is currently studying patterns of urban development in the Chesapeake Bay watershed; the effects of historical soil erosion in Baltimore County; and the causes and effects of trail erosion in the Baltimore metropolitan region.
My primary research interests are the population biology of invertebrates, especially crustaceans, and the population level consequences of individual behavior. My current research interests include: (1) Effects of chronic exposure to heavy metals on life history patterns of terrestrial isopods living in serpentine areas; (2) The dynamics of aggregation formation in terrestrial isopods. I am also engaged in collaborative research project on vitro studies of disease and bleaching in corals with Gary K. Ostrander, Johns Hopkins University). I am willing to advise students in a variety of research areas. For example, one of my current students is investigating a model in theoretical systems ecology.
Dr. Richard Seigel
Professor of Biological Sciences
Smith Hall 319A
My basic research philosophy is that one cannot be a good conservation biologist without first being a strong population ecologist, and, conversely, that an interest in conservation biology is a required interest of anyone calling themselves a population ecologist. Thus, research in my lab is oriented in two main directions; studies on the evolutionary ecology of amphibians and reptiles (using both field and experimental approaches) and studies on the conservation biology of amphibians and reptiles, which is almost exclusively field-oriented. My selection and recruitment of graduate students follows these approaches; of the 16 students I have mentored to date, eight have focused on evolutionary ecology and eight on conservation biology. Naturally, students are strongly encouraged to work outside of their specific area of expertise and to collaborate with myself or with their fellow students.
Dr. Winters' research involves the study of genetic diversity in populations of invertebrates and vertebrates. Current projects include an analysis of the genetic structure of terrestrial snail populations in the Potomac Gorge; a study of the population diversity in gopher tortoises at Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and DNA barcoding of terrestrial snails in the genus Stenotrema. Projects her laboratory allow students to gain experience in the field through sample collection and in the laboratory with the use of molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction, electrophoresis, sequencing and microsatellite analysis.
Research in Dr. Sivey’s group focuses on environmental organic chemistry and the chemistry of drinking water treatment. Specifically, Dr. Sivey’s group examines the chemistry of aqueous disinfectants (including free chlorine and free bromine) as well as the generation disinfection by-products. The reactivity of biologically-important molecules (e.g., amino acids) toward chlorinating and brominating agents is of particular interest. The group also examines the transformation mechanisms and environmental fate of agrochemicals (including pesticides and so-called "inert" ingredients).
Dr. Tasch conducts research on the human dimensions of climate change and resource development, particularly in the Arctic, Caucasus, Central Asia and Pacific Russia. His work addresses conflict and cooperation between multiple stakeholders where natural resources are the drivers of development or where their absence creates alternative development dilemmas as well as opportunities.
Wolfson has long standing interests in entomology, agroecology and the impact of agricultural production methods on the environment. She has done considerable research on developing and investigating environmentally friendly methods of insect control. Her research in Cameroon, West Africa, focused on traditional pest control methods and their efficacy. In Maryland she has been working with local farmers to make sure that their production constraints are understood by those involved (or who will be involved in the future) in policy implementation. More recently she has been involved in urban environmental projects and projects focusing on factors that contribute to interest in science and the environment among urban youth.
Environmental Science and Studies Program
Psychology Building, Room 210
Hours: Monday - Friday, 8:30 a.m. - 5 p.m.