Family: Fagaceae. Native to Maryland and Eastern North America. 80-115 feet. Easily recognized by its smooth gray bark, the beech is one of the most distinctive trees of North America. It is an imposing tree, often with a short trunk and wide-spreading crown. The 2-5-inch-long saw-toothed leaves are dark green in the summer and turn a lovely burnished gold in the fall. Beech trees flower in April or early May. The beechnut, a favorite food for many types of wildlife, is contained in a light brown prickly casing.
2. Atlas Cedar
Family: Pinaceae. Native to North Africa. 60-100 feet. The Atlas cedar is a slow-growing conifer that matures into a handsome specimen tree with spreading branches and a pyramidal form. The short stiff needles are bluish green, varying in color from silvery blue to light green. The gray bark is smooth and shiny, becoming cracked and scaly with age. In the fall, 3-4 inch cylindrical cones, depressed at the tip, grow upright on the upper sides of branches and shed clouds of yellow pollen.
3. Black Locust
Family: Leguminosae. Native to Maryland and the Eastern United States. 60-80 feet. The Black locust can grow on nutrient-poor soils due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen with a symbiotic bacterium, thereby providing its own fertilizer. The gray-brown bark is deeply furrowed. Leaves are compound, 8-14 inches long with seven to 20 oval leaflets that fold together at night. In spring, the Black locust produces clusters of fragrant, white, pea-like flowers that attract honeybees. The fruit is a short, flat, dark brown pod. The wood is used to make long-lasting fence posts.
4. Norway Maple
Family: Aceraceae. Native to Europe. Naturalized in the United States. 50-70 feet. Because of its tolerance for poor soil conditions and urban environments, the Norway maple was once a widely recommended street tree. It has escaped cultivation and is now considered an undesirable invasive because it competes aggressively with native trees. The leaves are 4-7 inches across with five sharp-pointed lobes. Dark green in summer, the leaves change to yellow in the fall.
5. Red Maple
Family: Aceraceae. Native to Maryland and Eastern North America. 60-90 feet. The Red maple is valued for its blazing fall color display of brilliant red, orange or yellow leaves. The bark is smooth and gray, becoming fissured with age. The leaves are medium to dark green in summer and 2-4 inches long with three or five-pointed lobes. The red umbrella-like flowers are attractive in late winter or early spring. Mature trees typically have a dense rounded crown. It is the state tree of Rhode Island.
6. Northern Read Oak
Family: Fagaceae. Native to Maryland and Eastern North America. 70-90 feet. A relatively fast-growing deciduous tree, the Northern red oak is a tree of economic importance as well as a favored ornamental species often used for street plantings. The broad rounded crown and striking fall color of a mature Northern red oak creates a majestic presence in the landscape. The alternate, simple leaves are 5-8 inches long, 4-6 inches wide and dull green on top. Dark gray bark, smooth at first, becomes furrowed with age. Heavy crops of large, shallow-capped acorns are produced every three to five years. Its wood is used for making furniture, flooring, paneling and veneer. The Northern red oak is the New Jersey state tree.
7. Horse Chestnut
Family: Hippocastanea. Native to Europe. 70-100 feet. Related to our native buckeyes, the Horse chestnut is a large deciduous tree planted throughout the Eastern United States. One of the first trees to leaf out in spring, distinctive compound leaves fan into five to seven leaflets 4-8 inches long. The bark is brown and somewhat scaly. Long-lasting white, bell-shaped blossoms attractive to hummingbirds are borne in 5-12-inch-long clusters in early to mid-May. The 2-inch diameter fruit is covered with short spines.
8. European Beech
Family: Fagacae. Native to Europe. 50-70 feet. European beech is a fine specimen tree. Growth is densely pyramidal with lower branches sweeping to the ground. The leaves are 2-4 inches long and are dark green in the summer, changing to red-brown and yellow-brown in the fall. The bark is ashy gray with horizontal bands, often with whitish patches of lichens. Rosy in color, the wood is used in carpentry and in making bentwood furniture.
9. Japanese Flowering Crabapple
Family: Rosaceae. Native to Japan. 15-20 feet. A small tree, Malus floribunda is one of over 200 varieties of ornamental crabapples. Hardy and showy, it is prized in the landscape for bearing a profusion of springtime blossoms. The flowers are red in the bud, opening to white. The oval green-to-purple leaves are dense and finely textured. Small red or yellow fruit is produced between August and October.
10. Eastern White Pine
Family: Pinaceae. Native to Maryland and Eastern North America. 70-110 feet. Eastern white pine is a tall, fast-growing evergreen of economic and ornamental value. The soft, flexible, blue-green 3-5 inch long needles are grouped in fives. The bark is gray and becomes furrowed with age. The slender cones are 4-8 inches long and often slightly curved. Once plentiful, white pine was used in shipbuilding to make masts and spars. The soft, white, straight-grained wood is now primarily used for millwork. It is the state tree of Maine and Michigan.
Family: Fagaceae. Native to North America, Europe, North Africa and Western Asia. 40-60 feet. We have been unable to confirm the identity of this chestnut. It exhibits some characteristics typical of the European chestnut (Cas/anea sativa) and some associated with the Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima). This tree may be one of several hybrid varieties developed following the almost total loss of the American chestnut, as a result of a fungal disease. Handsome dark green leaves are 5-9 inches long, with sharply toothed edges. Small creamy-white flowers in 8-10 inch long catkins appear in June or July. The tree produces large chestnuts enclosed in prickly burrs.
12. Saucer Magnola
Family: Magnoliaceae. Hybrid. 20-30 feet. One of the most popular ornamental magnolias in American gardens, numerous cultivars are available. The leaves are 3-6 inches long and are a deep, flat green in the summer and occasionally turn yellow-brown in the fall. The bark is smooth and gray. Saucer magnolias produce, beautiful 5-10 inch flowers ranging in color from white to pink to purple. This is a small deciduous tree often used in groupings, corner plantings or as a specimen lawn tree.
13. Bald Cypress
Family: Taxodiaceae. Native to Maryland and the Southeastern United States. 70-100 feet. A relative of the California redwood, this stately deciduous conifer is typically found in swamps and river bottoms. Its growth is slender and pyramidal. Two rows of soft, flexible, sage-green leaves, which turn a bright orange brown in the fall, are borne feather-like along a green stem. In the wild the Bald cypress forms upright conical roots called "knees" and provides valuable habitat to many species, including eagles and ospreys. (Battle Creek Cypress Swamp, one of the northernmost naturally occurring cypress swamps in the United States, is located in Calvert County, Md.). The Bald cypress is the state tree of Louisiana.
14. Canadian Hemlock
Family: Pinaceae. Native to Maryland and Eastern North America. 60-90 feet. A dense, pyramidal evergreen, Canadian hemlock has a tendency to develop multiple trunks. One half-inch long dark green needles, white banded beneath, are arranged in opposite rows on gracefully drooping branches. Small brown cones hang directly at the end of the twig. The tannin-rich bark, once used in the curing of leather, is dark and rough. A fine lawn, background or foundation planting, Canadian hemlock can also be trimmed to make a beautiful hedge. It is the state tree of Pennsylvania.
15. Sugar Maple
Family: Aceraceae. Native to Maryland and Eastern North America. 80-100 feet. The Sugar maple is celebrated for its spectacular display of orange, red and yellow fall foliage in cold-winter areas. Sugar maple sap can be tapped in early spring and made into maple syrup. Its habit is upright and oval to round. The foliage is usually dense. In summer, the five-lobed leaves, 3-6 inches long, are medium to dark green. The gray-brown bark becomes ridged and furrowed with age. Sugar maple is susceptible to air and water-borne pollutants and performs best in protected areas. It is the state tree of Vermont, New York, Wisconsin and West Virginia.
16. Sweet Gum
Family: Hamamelidaceae. Native to Maryland and the Eastern United States. 70-100 feet. Sweetgum is an excellent tree for lawn, park or street use, although it is sometimes shallow rooted. When crushed, the alternate 3-6-inchlong star-shaped leaves are aromatic. They are a deep glossy green in the summer and turn to rich yellow, purple and red tones in the fall. The silvery gray bark is deeply furrowed into slender scaly ridges. The distinctive fruit is a prickle ball of short sharp spines. Early settlers extracted a resin from the inner bark to use as a gum, or as medicine. The wood is used for cabinet making, furniture and plywood.
17. Honey Locust
Family: Leguminosae. Native to Maryland and the Central United States. 40-80 feet. In many parts of the country, the Honey locust is a popular street tree, replacing elms that perished during the Dutch elm disease epidemic. Its leaves are pinnately compound and 6-12 inches long, bright green in the summer, and turning yellow in the fall. Due to it's open-crowned habit and graceful leaves, the Honey locust casts interesting shade patterns. Trunks and branches are formidably spiny (spineless varieties are available). The distinctive fruit is a dark maroon brown twisting curved pod 12-18 inches long containing a honeyed substance between the seeds.
18. Bradford Pear
Family: Rosaceae. Hybrid selected in Maryland from seedlings of Chinese origin. 40-50 feet. A popular street and flowering ornamental, this hybrid, introduced in 1963, is adaptable to many different soils and tolerates urban conditions. The strongly horizontal branching pattern leads to breakage in older trees. The glossy dark green leaves are broadly oval and 1-3 inches long. They turn to a glossy scarlet or purple in the fall. Bradford pear produces abundant small white flowers borne in numerous clusters early in the spring.
19. Kwanzan Oriental Cherry
Family: Rosaceae. Native to Japan, China, and Korea. 20-30 feet. The Kwanzan is the most popular cultivar of Oriental cherry. The new foliage is bronzy red and eventually changes to lustrous dark green at maturity. Its fall color is often a deep bronze to subdued red. In the spring large, deep pink double flowers, 2-5 inches in diameter, bloom in pendent clusters. A fine collection of flowering cherries given to the United States by Tokyo in 1912 can be found at the Tidal Basin in Washington, D.C.
20. Flowering Dogwood
Family: Cornaceae. Native to Maryland and Eastern North America. 20-40 feet. The Flowering dogwood is a small, spreading tree with "four-season" appeal (excellent flower, summer and fall foliage, fruit, and winter habit). The 2-6 inch long oval leaves are dark green in summer, changing to red and purple in the fall. The modest flowers are contained within handsome white (pink and red varieties are available) bracts 3-4 inches across. Produces clusters of small scarlet fruit that adds winter interest and is an important source of food to wildlife. It is the Missouri and Virginia state tree.
Family: Theaceae. Once native to Georgia, 20-30 feet. A beautiful and unique member of the tea family, the Franklinia tree was once native to Georgia. It is believed to be extinct in the wild since the 1700’s. Spoon-shaped leaves 4-6 inches long turn from bright green to vermilion in the fall. Large white flowers with a sweet fragrance open from round white buds in August and September. The bark is reddish brown with faint striping.
22. American Holly
Family: Aquifoliaceae. Native to Maryland and the Southeastern United States. 40-50 feet. The American holly is a popular evergreen specimen plant. Densely pyramidal in youth, it becomes more open with age. The glossy 1.5-3.5 inch long leaves are dark green and arrayed with spines. Many birds and mammals eat the bright red berry-like fruits. The fine- grained white wood is used in inlay woodwork and piano keys. George Washington's dentures were made from holly wood. It is the Delaware state tree.
23. Silver Maple
Family: Aceraceae. Native to Maryland and Eastern North America. 70-100 feet. Graceful in form, the Silver maple is a fast-growing species frequently found on riverbanks in the wild. The wood is weak and brittle, prone to break in storms. The sharp-toothed, five-lobed leaves, 6-7 inches long and 4-6 inches across, are pale green with bright silvery white undersides and are deeply incised. The bark is smooth silvery gray, becoming furrowed and scaly as the tree matures.
24. Norway Spruce
Family: Pinaceae. Native to Europe. 60-110 feet. The Norway spruce is commonly planted throughout Eastern North America and has naturalized in some areas. Its conical shape and strongly drooping branches are characteristic. The square-sided, sharp-pointed needles are dark green. Older trees produce cones 4-6 inches long. The bark is brown and scaly. It is valued as a windbreak in cold areas.
25. Pin Oak
Family: Fagaceae. Native to Maryland, Central and Eastern North America. 60-80 feet. The pin oak is named for the many short pin-like twigs, which were once used as wooden pegs. One of the faster growing oaks, the Pin oak frequently is used as a street tree throughout the Eastern United States because of its pyramidal growth habit and beautiful fall color. The bright green 4-6-inch-long leaves change to copper, bronze and red in the fall. Small, nearly rounded acorns, which take two years to mature, are partially enclosed in a shallow reddish-brown cup.